Younger-Dryas

The Dryas is a wildflower that grows in cooler climates. An evergreen that colonizes areas by spreading along the ground, it is found in Alaska, the Canadian Rockies and reaching as far south as Colorado.

The Younger-Dryas is also an era named for glaciation and cooler temperatures, roughly ending 11,000 years ago. The most recent major ice age started around 115,000 years ago and encompasses the extinction of the Neanderthals and the rise of man. This major glaciation was coasting towards warmer temperatures up to a sudden temperature retreat around 13,000 years ago called the Younger-Dryas and lasting around 1,500 years.

Scientists cannot put an exact year on the peak of and ice-age or the transition from a warm period to a cool period. In years, the transition is much slower, and all changes feature starts, stops, retreats and retrenching, much like a stock market chart. But we do know that the period of glaciation was severe for North America and Scotland. Scottish historians tell us that there were five or six peaks of glaciation in northern Scotland over the last 750,000 years.

Northern Europe and northern North America suffered thick glaciers two miles thick during these ice ages. Geologists tell us that Chicago, New York, most of Scotland, Finland, Norway, and the ice was thinner but still substantial in northern France, Germany and Poland. The European ice sheet appears to have receded a thousand years earlier than in Russia and North America.

Heavy rains in the deserts of North America produced lakes, including Lake Bonneville. The Great Salt Lake is a remnant of the climate of the last ice age. Even the Amazon was affected by global cooling, the jungles today were in some places a grassland more like Africa than central South America. Sea levels were also affected severely by the end of the last ice age.

As the Younger-Dryas came to and and, the seas saw a nearly 200 foot rise in sea level during the next 5,000 years. The deepest recessions of sea level in the last major ice age exceeded 400 feet below today’s sea level. For reference, the deepest part of the Chunnel is 250 feet below sea level, which is also the narrowest part of the English Channel. During the Younger-Dryas and during much of the last major glaciation period, the English Channel was probably dry, or a salt marsh, which was crossed by Neanderthal and Early humans. But the climate of southern England would have been cooler, with ice near to the north supporting small populations of early hunters and gatherers.

The extremes of sea levels had interesting effects for the Phillippines. Today’s mass of thousands of islands were one large island. It may have been possible to walk on dry land from Japan to Australia, crossing ridges exposed by the lower sea levels to Taiwan, then to the Phillippines, next to New Guinea and right onto the Australian continent. The sea level changes mean that eons of history for humanity that fished the oceans has been buried under hundreds of feet of salt water. But other differences in the environment were also prevalent.

One feature of the last ice age was air pollution. The same ice age that produced heavy rains and lakes in the deserts of North America expanded deserts elsewhere. Blowing sands and dust were up to 50 times higher during the ice age, which further blocked sun light that could have warmed the Earth.

Latest wannacry operating systems involved

Reports of the latest ransomware threats fail to provide precise descriptions of what computer systems are at risk, and how to protect computers and windows from virus attacks like the one happening in the Ukraine.

Windows operating systems affected and the steps used to protect computers are better outlined in a description of operating systems affected by NotPetya at Python Lineup Windows not that vulnerable.

Net Neutrality Explained

We found the best ever explanation of net neutrality here;

Think about data like you think about water. A certain sized pipe can only deliver water at a certain maximum speed, and it takes electricity and pumps and infrastructure to do that.

Then think about the kid in his basement running multiple torrent servers as the guy who wants to fill his swimming pool with water every few hours. It takes electricity and pumps and infrastructure to do that.

Then think about grandma, who can save $ 200 a year off her phone bill by using Skype or MagicJack instead of the government regulated phone company.

Net neutrality makes sure that all the kids filling their swimming pools with data prevent Grandma from making a phone call.

Office Movers Atlanta Ga

Doctors, dentists, retail and professional, commercial customers look for a trusted office moving company in Atlanta to quickly and conveniently relocate their enterprise on moving day. With more than three decades of experience in moving and storage, Mark the Mover has grown from Mark and his pickup truck cruising the avenues of Virginia Highland and Morningside to a fleet of local furniture vans ranging in size from 22 foot to 30 foot boxes.

Mark the Mover uses moving carts for commercial relocation, so that computers, desks, office supply closets, photocopy rooms, fax machines and retail counters get placed directly on the wheeled cart, shrink wrapped, and delivered to the precise location desired without the need for the extensive use of packing materials, waste of corrugated boxes, and the inconvenience of disposing those items at the tail end of the commercial relocation effort.

Contact Mark the Mover of your Atlanta office moving needs at 404-351-0018.

Creek Indians fun facts

  • actually the Muscogee people, called the Creek by early settlers
  • descendants of the Mississippian culture indians, mound builders from 2000-1500 years ago
  • early Spanish explorers kidnapped Creeks and enslaved them in the Caribean plantations
  • Creek Chiefs owned African slaves and cotton plantations from New Orleans to Washington DC
    (link)
  • Leaders attempted to settle a land dispute with the Choctaw nation (1790) with a ball game
  • thought to be linked to the Etowah Indian Mounds, north and west of Acworth Ga.
  • William Augustus Bowles of Maryland explored Georgia and married two wives, a Mucogee and a Cherokee in the late 18th century

The Miami Circle

Suwanee Roofing

If you are a Suwanee Georgia homeowner looking for a reliable and established roofing company for your Suwanee roofing needs, Buckeighty Roofing Co comes from Braselton Georgia and provides new asphalt shingle roofs for houses all around Atlanta. Asphalt shingle roofs have an average lifespan of 20 to 30 years but their lifespan can be limited by storm damage and hail damage. In the last couple of years, many roofs have been damaged by some very violent hail storms, especially in Buford Georgia and Monroe Georgia.

Insurance companies were paying out claims for hail damage but a slowing economy and the number of other claims have severely tightened the market for insurance paid roofing claims. An average homeowners policy of 750 to 1000 dollars a year simply cannot cover a new roof every few years and still have the escrow to help homeowners hurt in truly dire situations, for example the recent heavy storms that hit the Atlanta area.

The insurance commissioner has been saying that the storms have caused 75 million dollars in damage in Georgia, but the numbers are sure to rise. Still the damage to asphalt shingle roofs in the Atlanta area pale by comparison to the tornados of Birmingham Alabama and the expected flooding along the Mississippi. Hundreds were killed not to mention homes entirely lost in recent high winds and tornados.

So even if you cannot use your homeowners insurance to replace your asphalt shingle roof, Suwanee homeowners replacing their roof should use an established roofing company from Braselton Georgia, because Buckeighty roofing has 18 years of excellent workmanship using high grade roofing materials. Buckeighty Roofing stands behind their roofing product, and offers a free initial roofing consultation.

Commercial painters with the experience and know how to properly handle the industrial and large scale painting projects lag behind the expertise of a painting company from Lawrenceville Ga called Buckeighty Painting Co. Painting water towers, petroleum tank farms, factory floors, office buildings and shopping centers are regular fare for this Painting Contractor serviing the Southeastern United States.

Buckeighty Painting Company is also doing large houses in Lawrenceville and Suwanee, especially when both exterior and interior painting is involved. Commercial painters for a large Victorian home, McMansion or antebellum Atlanta home are a good idea to assure the finest workmanship in restoration and to create a long lasting paint job. Buckeighty Painting Company takes on these sort of jobs also in Dacula and Buford Georgia.

Also serving the industrial painting needs of Gainesville Georgia, Buckeighty painting paints factory floors and entire shopping centers as well as shopping centers and office building remodeling projects. Property managers and building owners rely on us to handle all their commercial real estate refinishing and polishing needs. Commercial property managers use Atlanta Commercial Painters Buckeighty Painting for all their commercial and industrial painting needs.