Fomalhaut is a Class A main sequence star, much brighter and about twice the size of our G-Type Sun. A bright star in the night sky, Fomalhaut is in the constellation Pisces Australis in the southern sky and is around 25 light years from Earth.
Fomalhaut exhibits a ring of dust and debris like the asteroid belt or the Kuiper belt. The asteroid belt orbiting the Sun is between Mars and Jupiter while the Kuiper Belt is beyond the orbit of Neptune. Beyond that is the Oort Cloud which has a diameter of roughly two light years, while the ring of debris around Fomalhaut most studied is more like the Kuiper Belt with a diameter of two one thousanths of a light year. Earths orbit is fifteen millionths of a light year, Neptunes orbit has a radius of about 4.1 ‘light-hours’ or .5 thousanths of a light year.
In light years, these numbers are small, so for the Fomalhaut system and our Solar System scientists talk in terms of Astronomical Units, or AU. One AU is the distance from Earth to the Sun. Neptune is 30.1 AU from the sun, or 30 times further. The outermost studied cloud of debris around Fomalhaut is 133 AU, or four times greater in orbit radius than the orbit of Neptune. But since Fomalhaut is 20 times brighter than our Sun and of much greater mass, the inhabitable zone for a Fomalhaut earth like planet would have an orbital radius of three to five AU.
Additional dim stars around Fomalhaut taken by the Hubble Space Telescope lead scientists to call it a triple star system, with ‘B’ and ‘C’ stars that yield little luminosity and are around one light year or 65,000 AU away, well outside the known debris belts of Fomalhaut.
Within the debris field, scientists have detected two planets roughly the size of Earth. However, one is thought to be Mars like with lower gravitational force and the other twice earth with a greater gravitational pull. Because they are so far outside the three to five AU habitable zone, they are thought to be very cold planets.
In order to take advantage of the habitable zone of Fomalhaut, we could conceive of an Elysium style satellite but with an additional twist. The elliptical orbit of Fomalhaut B leads scientists to believe that the inhabitable zone will be heavily bombarded with asteroids and meteorites.
Standard Candles, Cepheid Variables and the expanding universe
The correlation between a Cepheid variable’s brightness and the period of its peak and trough of brightness makes this kind of star a standard candle for distance approximation in the universe.Types of Cepheids include Classical Cepheids (Population I Cepheids, Type I Cepheids, or Delta Cephei variables), Type II Cepheids (Population II Cepheids), Anomalous Cepheids, and Dwarf Cepheids.
Classical Cepheids are between four and ten times the size of the Sun and pulsate during a period ranging from days to months.
Type II Cepheids exhibit a pulsation ranging from a day to two months. Usually smaller than the Sun and metal poor.
Edward Pigott in 1784 documented the pulsation of Eta Aquilae, a Classical Cepheid variables. But the standard example is Delta Cephei, documented by John Goodricke shortly thereafter.
Edwin Hubble postulated standard candle distances to the Andromeda Galaxy in 1924. In this time, astronomers still struggled with the difference between the Milky Way and the possibility of a larger universe.
In 1929, Hubble published more research theorizing an expanding universe, based on Cepheid variable measurements in many more galaxies.
The 1630s in Amsterdam was the time of the great Tulip Bulb Bubble. “Tulpenwoede” or tulip madness approached its apex in 1637 when bulb contracts, particualarly for Semper Augustus, exceeded 5,000 gilders. Perhaps fueled by speculators and gamblers, most professional tulip practitioners avoided the wild market. While 5,000 gilders could buy a house, just a few years earlier when prices were more reasonable, the same contract was 1,000 gilders. As is the case with moden commodity contracts, depending on weather and yield, the future value was not, as history seems to be written, many orders out of the ordinary.
But the final months of the bubble were driven increasingly by amateur speculators, out for quick profit, not the central tulip business players. What failed was contract law, in which the trader was not really required to buy and take delivery, but could exit the contract with a small fine. The actual spot delivery prices of tulips never strayed from reasonable levels. So in effect, Tulip Mania was not caused by wild trading schemes, speculation or a quest for profits. It was caused by lawyers, politicians and the courts, who rarely find the insight to design a level playing field. The lesson of Tulip Mania should be a healthy distrust of ability of our lawyer-politician class to enact good legislation, when their goal is to buy votes and extract campaign contributions.
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A website with lots of tips and tricks for Atlanta movers is a Tumblr blog. Tumblr was started by a kid in New York City and has become a noted photoblogging platform.
The Atlanta Movers blog contains information and insights on moving companies and hiring moving companies, as well as discussions on household relocation and packing. Local moving and long distance moving are discussed as well as packing and storing household goods. Household goods storage has changed in recent years with the advent of self storage. Many consumers find that their storage lockers become so packed full of stuff that they still hire moving companies to help in the moving effort.
Choices between moving ourselves and issues renting a truck as well as what kind of moving company do we need are also discussed. Renting a moving truck is often more of a bare bones type of deal, with extra charges assessed for moving pads and furniture dollies.
The Python poplib example allows even beginning programmers a way to write a computer program to look at their email inbox. We have all struggled with the search capabilities of various email programs. But Python is a real game changer. Another library that is useful in this task is the re or Regular Expression library, which will help you write some really powerful and fast searching capabilities. Short poplib example.
Companies of every size use their website in 2014 to illustrate their products, services, menu, schedule and every sort of information that was once more difficult to circulate. The switchboard receptionist once or seating crew once was the first line of defense for answering prospective inquiries into questions like ‘do you still sell widget abc’ or ‘do you still serve that chocolate cake?’
One Atlanta information services company has helped businesses of all sizes to rank highly in search engine results. The cost of developing a website is often offset by the cost of answering the phone to help customers with these questions. But only if customers find the website using google, bing or yahoo and the website is properly organized.
Web Atlanta MSInc are the foremost experts in the south east for helping companies get a return on investment for website development. Web developers often deliver a product that satisfies a businesses needs in ideal circumstances. While custom hand crafted html front ends can create the most attractive portal to present your companies image, and blog style content management systems provide the flexibility to keep your products and services up to date, a proper balance between the two provides superior access, response and accurate content for your prospects and customers.
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A member of the top 20 club, the twelfth brightest star in the night sky, Altair is a mere 17 light years from earth. Supposing mankind can someday travel near the speed of light, adding 2 years for acceleration and deceleration, it is a reachable star, but it is much more tumultuous than our Sun.
1.7 times the mass of the sun and 11 times its brightness, Altair is a type A main sequence star. Stars below about 1.5 times the mass of the Sun primarily fuse hydrogen atoms to form helium, while larger stars the nuclear fusion process mainly use atoms of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen as catalysts to produce helium.
Altair rotates once every 9 hours, compared to 30 days for our Sun. With its greater mass this makes Altair wider at the equator than the poles. Altair is north of the Zodiac belt in the constellation Aquila and is seen during the same time of year and north of Sagittarius.