*Immigration was 10%
*Child birth was 90%
*Between 1800 in 1849 the average woman had 5 children
*In 1870 the average woman had about 3 children
*African heritage in 1790 was 20% and decreased to 10% in 1900
*There was a very high infant mortality rate: 1800 130 deaths per 1000 live births and in the 1900s 88 deaths per 1000 live births
*Doctors did not know how to treat infant illnesses
*Because of high birth rates the population increased
*The median age in 1820 was 17, today is it about 33
*Many people began to seek dreams in the trans-Appalachia region
*In the 1780s only a few hundred Americans lived north of the Ohio River Valley
*By 1830 hundred thousands lived in Michigan territory, Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois
*Settlers moved as families
*Young men often traveled alone
*Families had to clear the land, plant a crop, and build a house, all with hand tools and muscle power. They developed quick methods for building a shelter and clearing the land. Shelters were rough log cabins or lean-to. Instead of cutting down trees, they scarred the bark so they would die this was called girdling. They used fire to clear under growth here they planted corn.
*Daniel Boone- 1775 the Transylvania Company employed men to build a Wilderness Road through Cumberland Gap. The road began in eastern Tennessee and ended in what is now Louisville Kentucky. The road became the mail route to trans-Appalachia for countless Americans. Boone became the leading citizen in the Ohio River Valley; he was a member of the Kentucky state legislature, a hunter and trapper. Migrated to Missouri in 1799, he died there in 1820
*Settlers swarmed to Alabama and Mississippi.
*Florida became a state in 1819, gaining 35,000 American settlers by 1830.
*In 1795 Spain and the U.S. signed the Pickney treaty, named after Thomas Pinckney.
1.Southern boundary was at 31 degrees north, leaving Florida to Spain
2.U.S. citizens allowed free use of the Mississippi River through Spanish territory
3.Spain and U.S. agrees to control Native Americans living in each country?s territories, and prevent them from attacking the other country’s territory
*During 1810s, Spain faced rebellions in Southern American colonies. Spanish tried to put down rebellion and paid no attention to Florida. The Seminoles took advantage of this ad stepped up raids on Southern Georgia settlers. This angered American officials because the Seminoles were taking in escaped slaves.
*Andrew Jackson, War of 1812 veteran invaded Florida, started march in 1818 with 2,000 men, swept across Florida border with in a few weeks. Claimed possession of entire western territory. Spain was outrages and congress threatened to condemn Jackson. Most Americans applauded Jackson. Adams accused Spain of breaking the Pinckney treaty in order to make the best of the situation. Spain’s representative Don Luis de Onis y Gonzales worked out a treaty with Adams
*1816 Transcontinental treaty or Adams- Onis treaty, Spain ceded Florida to the U.S. and gave up their claim on the Pacific Northwest.
*U.S. now stretched from the Atlantic to Pacific Ocean.
*The treaty fixed the boundary between the Louisiana Purchase and Spanish territory in the west.
*To settle disputes The United states ceded its claims to a huge territory in what is now southwestern U.S. territory, including part of Texas.
*African American pioneers settled in Florida and other areas. 98,000 moved west with owners between 1790 and 1810
*194,000 in Kentucky, Tennessee and the Gulf coast
*144,000 followed between 1810 and 1820
*Slavery forbidden north of The Ohio Rover Valley because of the Northwest Ordinance.
*African Americans who gained freedom could live in that region
*Many settlers did not want them in their states. They feared competition for jobs and land. Made laws to discourage African Americans from moving to the north.
*In Illinois African Americans had to pay $1,000 security bond unless they already owned land.
*Native Americans were forced west gradually loosing their lands to government treaties. Made long dangerous journeys to new areas west of the Mississippi River. Numbers continued to shrink because of disease from white settlers. Devastating epidemics regularly swept through Indian villages on both side of the Mississippi river.
*Many fought to preserve their way of life
*The Cherokee’s adapted. Under John Ross, Cherokee’s created a legal system and government that blended Cherokee and European tradition. Many gave up the practice of common lands and accepted the custom of private property, practiced slavery, and held 1,300 African American slaves. They became farmers and produced many goods. Published their own newspaper, used alphabet created by Sequoyah. In 1827 declared themselves and independent nation. All this did not save the Cherokee; white settlers wanted their land.